IMAM ABU HASSAN AL-Ash'ari
Tawheed Islamic leaders this field was born in 260 H in Basra and died in 324 AH Abu Hassan studied the Abu Ali Al-Jubbai different understanding of the nature of God. So he broke away and formed another idea named Asharites.
Abu Hassan made 90 title of the paper book from a range of disciplines, among others: Magalatul Islamiyah, on the issue of Islamic faith and theology. Al-ibanah 'An Usuliddiyanah, beliefs about faith and explanation of the basics of the religion. Al-Lama, of divinity, a great sin and faith.
Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Ismail al-Ash'ari descendants of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, one of the intermediary in the dispute between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya. Al-Ash'ari was born in 260 AH / 873 AD and died in 324 AH / 935 AD Al-Ash'ari was born in Basra, but most of his life in Baghdad.
He Rahimahullah take the theology of his stepfather, Abu Ali al-Jubai priest Mu'tazila group. When he came out of thinking Mu'tazila, he Rahimahullah entered Baghdad and took hadith from Baghdad muhaddits Yahya ibn Zakariya al-Saji.
Likewise, he learned to Abul Caliph al-Jumahi, Sahl bin Nuh, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Muqri, Abdurrahman bin Khalaf al-Basri, and the scholars thabaqah them.
In his time he studied at a famous Mu'tazila, namely Al-Jubbai, studying the teachings Mu'tazilite and depth. This flow continues ampai participated 40 years old, and not a few of his used to fabricate the books kemuktazilahan. but in 912 he announced exit from the familiar Mu'tazilah, and establish a new theology that came to be known as Asharites.
When it reaches the age of 40 years he hid in his house for 15 days, then went to the mosque Basrah. In front of many people he stated that he initially said that the Quran is a creature; Allah can not be seen very eyes; bad deeds is man himself who do it (all income streams Mu'tazilite).
Then he said: "I no longer hold those opinions; I have to reject the ideologies of people Mu'tazilite and show the evils and weaknesses-weaknesses".
He tends to the idea Aqidah Ahl Wal Jama'ah and have developed a doctrine such as the nature of God 20. Many Muslim thinkers who support the ideas of the priest, one of which is the "Sang hujjatul Islam" Imam Al-Ghazali, especially in the field of theology / science of monotheism / Ushuludin.
Although many scholars who oppose pamikirannya, but many Muslim society in their own image. People who follow / support the idea / understand this priest called kaum / follower "'Ashariyya", attributed to the name of the imam.
In predominantly Muslim Indonesia many who follow imam understand this, combined with understanding the science of Tawheed developed by Imam Abu Mansur Al-Maturidi. This is evident from the method of introduction of the attributes of God is known as the "20 attributes of God", which is widely taught in Islamic schools based Ahlussunnah Wal Jama'ah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) in particular, and the formal schools in general.
B. His works
He left the essays, totaling approximately 90 pieces in a variety of fields. His book is well-known there are three: 1. Maqalat al-Islamiyyin 2. Al-ibanah 'an Ushulid Diniyah 3. Al-Luma
Among his writings are: al-ibanah an Principled Diyanah, Maqalatul Islamiyyin, Risalah Ila Expert Tsaghr, al-Luma 'fi Raddi ala Ahlil Bida', al-Mujaz, al-Umad fi ru'yah, Fushul fi Raddi alal Mulhidin, Khalqul A'mal, Kitabush Shifat, Kitabur Ruyah bil Abshar, al-Khash wal 'Am, Raddu alal Mujassimah, Idhahul Burhan, ash-Sharh wa Tafshil, an-Naqdhu alal Jubai, an-naqdhu alal Balkhi, Jumlatu Maqalatil Mulhidin , Raddu ala lbni Ruwandi, al-Qami 'fi Raddi alal Khalidi, Adabul jadal, Jawabul Khurasaniyyah, Jawabus Sirafiyyin, Jawabul Jurjaniyyin, Masail Mantsurah Baghdadiyyah, al- Fonun fi Raddi alal Mulhidin, Nawadir fi Daqaiqil Kalam, Kasyful Asrar wa Hatkul Atsar, Tafsirul Qur'an al-Mukhtazin, and that lainnya.Al Rohimahullah-Imam Ibn Hazm said, "al-Imam Abul Hasan al-Ash'ari has 55 posts.
Al-Imam Abul Hasan al-Ash'ari died in Baghdad in 324 H. May God meridhoinya and placed in the breadth jannahNya.
Imam Shafi'i full name is Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris As Shafi'i was born in Gaza, Palestine in the year 150 AH (767-820 AD), a descendant of nobility Qurays and family still far prophet Muhammad. from his father, his lineage met in Abdul Manaf (third rasulullah grandfather) and his mother was a great-grandson of Ali bin Abi Talib r.a.
During the womb, his parents left Mecca toward Palestine, on arrival in Gaza, his father fell ill and passed away to Rahmatullah, then he nurtured and raised by his mother in a very concerned and seba shortage, at the age of 2 years, he and his mother returned to mecca and in this city Shafi'i gets care of her mother and family more intensively.
At the age of 9 years, he had memorized the entire Quran smoothly even he had 16 times the seal Quran in his journey from Mecca to Medina.
A year later, the book of Al Muwatha 'essay imam malik which contains 1,720 hadiths memorized choice also outside the head, Imam Shafii also pursue Arabic language and literature in the hamlet of Bedouin children of hundail for several years, then he returned to Mecca and learning fiqh from a great scholars who also mufti of Mecca at that time, namely Imam Muslim bin Khalid Azzanni.
His intelligence is what makes itself in a very young age (15 years) has been sitting in a chair mufti of Mecca, however, Imam Shafi'i not satisfied studying for the deeper he pursue a science, the more that he has not understood, so it is not Imam Shafi'i surprising that teachers are so many in number equal to the number of his disciples.
Although Imam Shafii mastered almost all disciplines, but he is better known as an expert because the core legal traditions and thoughts are focused on the two branches of science, a great defense against the sunnah of the Prophet so that he dubbed Nasuru Sunna (Defenders of the Sunnah of the Prophet).
In his view, the Sunnah of the Prophet has a very high position, even a few people have mentioned that Imam Shafi'i equalizes sunnah position in relation to the Koran as a source of Islamic law, therefore, according to him every law set by the prophet is essentially a result of understanding obtained Prophet from his understanding of the Quran.
In addition to these two sources (the Quran and Hadith), in making a determination of law, Imam Shafi'i also use ijma ', Qiyas and istidlal (reasoning) as the basis of Islamic law.
In connection with heresy, Imam Shafi'i found that heresy is divided into two kinds, that is commendable and perverse heresy, heresy is said to be laudable if they are aligned with the principles of the Qur'an and Sunnah and vice versa. in the matter of imitation, he always pays attention to his students so as not to accept the opinion of opinion and the results of ijtihad, he was not happy about his students bertaklid blind on opinion and ijtihad, served instead told to be critical and cautious in accepting an opinion, as the expression his "This ijtihadku, if you find another ijtihad better than ijtihadku then follow the ijtihad".
Among the works of Imam Shafi'i namely Al Risalah, Al Umm which includes the contents of some of his book, but it is also a book of hadith hadith Al Musnadberisi rasulullahyang compiled in the book as well as the deviation Umm Al Hadith.
Imam Al-Ghazali was born in 450 AH (1058 AD) in the village district Taberan Tus, Persian, and named Abu Hamid Muhammad, His title is "Hujjatul Islam" and the title wangsanya is Ghazzali. His father's name is less well known but his grandfather begutu are respected in his time.
His father died young, leaving his mother and was raised by his grandfather. Ghazzali touted as the name of a village district of Tus, Khorasan province, Persia. According to Maulana Shibli Nu'mani, Abu Hamid Muhammad ancestors had businesses weaving (ghazzal) and therefore he is preserve the family title "Ghazzali" (weavers).
Education, at the time his father died, the education of her two children entrusted to one belief. He provides both basic education and sent to Maktab private.
Both the child is able to memorize the Quran in a short time. After that they started to learn Arabic. They then inserted into the free madrassas [independent].
After some time Ghazzali to leave his hometown for some time to pursue higher education in Zarzan and study under the guidance of the great scholars, Imam Abu Nasr Ismail.
Ghazzali always recorded lecture, but in an event such records be carried robbers brought along his stuff. Tetepi he gave himself to go to the head of the robber to call upon them his lecture notes. Alhamdulillah memoirs were returned.
Then he went into Madrasah Nizamiyya in Nishapur, who was a respected education center and led by renowned cleric named Imam Haramain, which has 400 pupils three of his students became famous scholars, Harasi, Ahmad bin Muhammad Ghazzali. After the incident Ghazzali go to the center of the caliphate in Baghdad when he turns 28 years old Ghazzali.
In Baghdad, he was appointed Rector of madrasah Nizamiyah by Nizamul Mulk. Hundreds of scholars, officials of the Caliphate and ruling nobles attend lectures delivered by Imam Ghazzali thoughtful, argument and reason. Most of the lists of lectures recorded by Ibn Sayyid bin Fariz and Lubban. both recorded around 183 lecture material which is then collected in a majalis-i Ghazzaliyah.
Imam Ghazzali was a follower of Imam Shafi'i in his youth but in Baghdad he was hanging out with people from various schools of fiqh, thoughts and ideas: Shi'ite, Sunni, Zindagi, Zoroastrianism, sklolastik Theologian, Christian, Jewish, Atheist.
And this affects the pemikiaran Imam Ghazali and on life changed completely. He left Baghdad, dressed and slipped fled Baghdad sufi disuatu night in 488 H.
He went to Damascus and then retreated into a room mosque and earnestly worship, meditation and recitation. here he mengabiskan time over two years in solitude and silence.
At age 27, he was in tahbis by Pir Abu 'Ali Farnadi which is also a spiritual teacher Wazir Nizamul Mulk. after two years, dipergi to Jerusalem and berjiaran the birthplace of the Prophet Isa As. in the year 499 H he berjiarah to the shrine of Prophet Ibrahim, and there he planted the three vows:
- Not going to Dardar ruler.
- There will receive their gift.
- There will be involved in a religious debate.
He holds his vow to his death. Subsequently he perform Hajj and visit the Medina and stayed at the "City of the Prophet" is quite old.
When he returned home he asked the authorities to become rector Madrasah Nizamiyya, but when the ruler was killed then he put his position as rector, the new ruling offers back, but he turned it down.
He died in his native village, Taberan, at 14 Jumadil End 505 H coincide on December 9, 1111 M, Ibn Jauzi tells the story of his death.
He said "on Monday early morning before dawn he got out of bed and going to prayers Fajr and kemundian after he ordered someone to bring the shroud to him, after the fabric was given, he held it up to the eye and said, 'God's command in titahkan to be obeyed. ' when saying so he breathed for the last time, he left a daughter. "
As he works during the life of nearly 55 years and has already started writing books since the age of 20 years. The book he wrote almost amounted to 400 titles.